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The 55th ISCIE International Symposium on Stochastic Systems Theory and Its Applications

Special Lecture:
Control Problems from Pendulum to COE Projects (SMS and HAM)
-Super Mechano-Systems and Human Adaptive Mechatronics-

Katsuhisa Furuta
President Emeritus, Tokyo Denki University
Professor Emeritus, Tokyo Institute of Technology

Brief Contents

Intelligent systems have the abilities to adapt to the varying environment by using communication and control based on the measured and collected data through computers network. Cybernetics was defined by N. Wiener as ``the science of control and communication, in the animal and machine'' (W.R. Ashby). Automatic control is nowadays used not only in the factory for automation but also in consumer products like automobiles for driving support, and becomes to utilize the machine learning and data-driven engineering.
The automatic control had been developed historically in the separate technical fields like steam engines and feedback amplifiers for long distance telephony, and was born as a separate engineering discipline around the time of World War II in USA. At that time, the specialists in telecommunication and servomechanism were brought together by the pressure of the war and gave birth the automatic control as a discipline. N. Wiener engaged in the predicting the target position from past observation for the fire-control.
In 1960, the first IFAC Congress was held in Moscow, and R. E. Kalman presented the paper entitled ``On the General Theory of Control Systems'' which gave the idea of the controllability and observability based on the state space representation of the systems. He intended to initiate the pure theory of control by the paper. Based on the state space approach, the control theory has been developed since then. In the first part of the talk, the historical development of the Automatic control is presented with several photos.
In the second part, the control of the pendulum is presented from the stabilization of a simple pendulum and multiple pendulums to the swing-up of double pendulums. The control of the rotating type pendulum named Furuta pendulum is discussed and the movement of the pendulum under control shall be shown by Video.
In the third part, COE projects of SMS and HAM (Super Mechano-Systems and Human Adaptive Mechatronics) shall be introduced by presenting their ideas and several results of the projects, Super Mechano- System is defined as the system which autonomously organize themselves by changing their structure and functions to attain higher performance for a given objectives in the varying environment. HAM consists of intelligent mechanical systems adapting themselves to the human's skill under various environments and changing their shapes and functions automatically to bring out best performance. Some results of the projects shall be introduced.
In the fourth part, the idea of the Capsubot which has been given birth in HAM project is introduced and recent research development shall be presented. The conclusion is that the new idea and development shall be brought by mixing different disciplines.


Dr. Katsuhisa Furuta is one of Japan's leading experts in control engineering and robotics. He received his doctorate in engineering from the Tokyo Institute of Technology in 1967 and served as professor at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo Denki University, and its president. The rotational type of inverted pendulum he developed for verification of nonlinear control is known worldwide as the Furuta Pendulum.
He has made numerous achievements in system identification, nonlinear control including sliding mode, and robot and mechatronics, and has proposed concepts such as Super Mechano-System and HAM (Human Adaptive Mechatronics). He was a leader of the COE Research Program at Tokyo Institute of Technology, the 21st Century COE Program at Tokyo Denki University, and the JST Humanitarian Anti-Personnel Mine Detection and Clearance Technology Research and Development Promotion Project. He has also contributed to education and has fostered many researchers in the fields of control and mechatronics.
Dr. Furuta has also received numerous awards for his achievements, including the 1999 IEEE CSS Distinguished Member Award, 2000 Third Millennium Medal, and 2021 SICE Outstanding Contribution Award, and so on. In 2017, he was awarded the Order of the Sacred Treasure, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon, and honorary doctorates from Helsinki University of Technology and Tallinn University of Technology.